Kings of Israel: dates


See my First and Second Kings & Second Chronicles (Chevalier Press 2012), pages 20-21

Saul (c. 1025-1005; 1Samuel 9-31)

David (c. 1005-970; 2Samuel)

Solomon (c. 970-931; 1Kings 1-11)

Jeroboam (931-910) 1Kings 12:20 - 14:20

Nadab (910-909) 1Kings 14:20 - 15:31

Baasha (909-886) 1Kings 15:16 - 16:6

Elah (886-885) 1Kings 16:6-14

Zimri (885) 1Kings 16:19-20

Omri (885-874) 1Kings 16:16-21

Ahab (874-853) 1Kings 16:28 - 22:40

Ahaziah (853-852) 1Kings 22:20 - 2Kings 1:17

Jehoram (852-841) 2Kings 1:17 - 3:1

Jehu (841-814) 2Kings 9:13 - 10:36

Jehoahaz (813-797) 2Kings 10:35 - 13:9

Jehoash (799-784) 2Kings 13:10 - 14:16

Jeroboam II (788-748) 2Kings 14:16-29

Zechariah (748) 2Kings 15:8-11

Shallum (747) 2Kings 15:10-15

Menahem (747-737) 2Kings 15:14-22

Pekahiah (736-735) 2Kings 15:22-26

Pekah (734-730) 2Kings 15:25 - 16:5

Hoshea (730-722) 2Kings 15:30 - 18:10

Synchronising the reigns of the kings of Judah and Israel

It is in the attempt of the Deuteronomists to relate the year of the beginning of a king’s reign to the reign of the king in the neighbouring kingdom that inconsistencies arise. Presumably this was because of a lack of clarity in the archives that arrived south from Israel. Furthermore, while it is clear that the dates of a king’s reign were based on the New Year, one complication is that while Judah began the New Year in Spring, Israel, at least in the early years, appears to have had the New Year in Autumn. Also some texts include the period of co-regency, others do not. These two factors may help explain many of the minor inconsistencies.

The mistake in 2Kings 15:27 in regard to Pekah accounts for the mistake in 16:1 in regard to Ahaz. The most obvious inconsistency is in relation to the beginning of the reign of Hoshea. 2Kings 15:30 says it was ‘in the twentieth year of Jotham’. 2Kings 17:1 says it was ‘in the twelfth year of King Ahaz.’

No doubt the Deuteronomists were aware of these inconsistencies, and were doing their best to faithfully collate different pieces of information from a very confusing period in the final years of the northern kingdom.